Dispersant

Lignosulfonate work as a Dispersant

Lignosulfonate cold keep the undissolved fine particles in suspension.They will be tightly attached to each other on the surface to reducing water ,accordingly it was natural water reducing agent and plasticizer .
Its famous dispersant property is widely used in the following :

1.Concrete
Lignosulfonate can be used in concrete work as plasticizers will reduce the cost by 10-15%,the lignosulfonate could assume 0.5-2% of the total mixture w/w,will increase the strength of concrete by 20-26%. Functions as follows
Improved strength and durability of the cured concrete
Reduced formulation cost
Increased workability of the concrete mix

2.Leather tanning
One of the excellent property of lignosulfonate used as tanning agent is irreversible suitability bonding of vegetable tannins.
The constituents of concrete, aggregate, water and important cement, some materials, called admixtures are added during or before mixing of concrete to change its properties like setting time, workability, water proofing and many other properties. it retards concrete to set early.
some retarders will mostly reduce the water requirements of concrete mix. So the retarders are frequently termed as water reducing retarder.
Another effect of retarder is it produces a concrete mix of low W/C ratio requirement having desire workability and result a concrete mass of better strength for a particular cement content. These concrete also becomes less permeable rendering a durable structure. In addition some retarders produce sufficient air bubble to act as air-entraining agents for concrete mixtures. Thus the performances of retarder are manifold including:
Better workability.
Higher strength.
Better durability
Lignosulfonate retarder has influence in the early development of strength with its main purpose of retarding. The cement slurry containing lignosulfonate retarder is successfully used in oil industry with the above extra advantages.

3.Clay and ceramics
For ceramics lignosulfonate can reduce the carbon content ,reduce the amount of plastic clay ,mud ,good liquidity,increase yield 70%-90%,splintering speed from 70minutes to 40 minutes.

4.Dyeing and pigments
Such dispersant has good heating stability,lower staining ability,minimize foaming.

5.Gypsum board
Lignosulfonate is working as dispersant with good function will not retard the of the wallboard.

6.Oil drilling fluids

Lignosulfonate is used as reagent to control the basic parameters of the drilling fluids ,also they are component of gelling system.the formation of gel leads to the redistribution of filtration flows and their better management a,alignment profile pick injection wells ,restriction of water in the process which in turn increase the recovery of oil.

Lignosulfonate Stabilized Emulsions in Oil Well Drilling Fluids

Oil in water emulsions have become important in oil well drilling fluids. Lignosulfonates, prominent among various stabilizing agents, have been used successfully for several years in both lime-base and brine-based fluids. This paper is concerned with the surface active properties of the lignosulfonates, the characteristics of lignosulfonate stabilized emulsions, and their application to oil well drilling.

Lignosulfonates in solution may be regarded as subcolloidal, high molecular weight polyelectroyltes. They do not possess the hydrophobic-hydrophilic molecular structure or other attributes of the McBain “colloidal electrolyte.” In general, lignosulfonates are not effective in lowering surface or interfacial tension of water solutions, but certain sodium lignosulfonates when used in combination with alkaline brines may lower interfacial tension.

Lignosulfonates stabilize emulsions because the lignosulfonate molecule is adsorbed at the oil-water interface, establishing a high order electrokinetic charge and also a semi-rigid film. Lignosulfonate stabilized emulsions are stable in high concentrations of inorganic electrolytes, stable to heat, freezing, and to mechanical action.

Drilling fluids with lignosulfonate stabilized emulsions may be prepared to control water loss independent of bentonite or organic colloids such as starch. Such fluids may possess low viscosity, low weight, and low water loss simultaneously. These fluids have low mud-making properties and are unaffected by the usual inorganic contaminants, yet if desired may be adjusted to raise viscosity and gel to form high weight muds.

A more complete understanding of the lignosulfonate and their potentialities may well aid in the development of drilling fluids designed to cope with certain of the many problems encountered in oil well drilling.

Emulsion muds may be defined as water-base drilling fluids to which oil had been added and subsequently emulsified. These muds are relatively new to oil well drilling, the literature being rather meager until about 1949. Field use in recent years has brought emulsion muds into prominence as important and useful drilling fluids, but full knowledge of their potentialities is yet to be realized.

7.Pesticides and insecticides

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